Another pagan moralist, Maximus of Tyre, though plunged in the
thick darkness and ignorance of polytheism, could nevertheless see clearly
what the unlettered Arabian prophet could not:
"Thus too, neither the tall Indian virgin, nor the Mede
with her tiara, nor the Dardan with her mitre, neither the
Carian armed, nor the Lydian with her song, neither the
Ionic nor the Hellespontic maid could lead the mighty
Xerxes to love, who engaged the Greeks at Salamis and
Plataea, and who beheld and was the lord of so many
beautiful bodies; but he became enamored with Amestris,
the wife of his son. O most base love! which, neglecting
grateful food, requires such as is bitter and not fit to
be eaten, through intemperate license abusing the power of
love." (Maximus of Tyre, The Dissertations, Dissertation X, pp. 108-109).
Maximus goes on insightfully to explain that it is excessive power
that leads to these abuses: "For when you deprive the soul of knowledge,
but afford it power, you impart to crimes an influx, a license, and a
passage." (Maximus of Tyre, The Dissertations, Dissertation X, p. 1109).
Is that the case here? Don't even think of crossing GodandHisApostle; when you criticize one, the Other gets angry:
"And it is not for a believer, man or woman, to have any choice in
their affairs, when God and His Apostle have decreed a matter: and whoever
disobeyeth God and His Apostle, erreth with palpable error." (Sura 33:36)
As time goes by, there is more and more of this material in the
Koran: "Whoso obeyeth the Apostle, in so doing obeyeth God. . ." (Sura
4:82). Adoption is the answer to prayer for two groups who badly need
one another: orphan children and would-be parents who cannot bear a
child themselves. It is respected by other religions, such as
Judaism: "'Bore Jered.' [1 Chronicles, iv. 18]. Did she bear him —
she only reared him? From this we may infer that whoso rears an
orphan is the same as if she bore him." (The Babylonian Talmud,
edited by Michael L. Rodkinson, Volume VIII, Tract Megilla, Chapter
1, Kindle location 33898). The early Christian work the Apostolic
Constitutions encourages adoption: "When any Christian becomes an
orphan, whether it be a young man or a maid, it is good that some
one of the brethren who is without a child should take the young
man, and esteem him in the place of a son; and he that has a son
about the same age, and that is marriageable, should marry the maid
to him: for they which do so perform a great work, and become,
fathers to the orphans, and shall receive the reward of this charity
from the Lord God." (Apostolic Constitutions, Book 4, Section 1,
Chapter 1, p. 860). Yet Islam cannot respect this necessary
and benevolent institution, for the sake of gratifying one man's lust.
There is a depressing trajectory in this man's life which mirrors what
would later become of Joseph Smith in the American wilderness. He begins
in all earnestness, enduring persecution and ridicule to share his awe
of God and the last day. But he is not a voice in the wilderness; he amasses
followers, and with followers come power. And power corrupts. Later we
see him, not enduring ridicule, but murdering the ridiculers. The final
absurdity comes when he and Joseph solemnly intone to the lady-folk poised
at the thresh-hold of the harem that their entry is just exactly what God wants, no, demands.
As noted, the Koran points to the Hadith by holding up the person and example
of Mohammed as fit subject for emulation. But the Hadith contain such subversive
information as Aisha's accusation that the Prophet was mentally ill:
"Narrated 'Aisha: 'Magic was worked on the Prophet so that he began
to fancy that he was doing a thing which he was not actually doing. One
day he invoked (Allah) for a long period and then said, "I feel that
Allah has inspired me as how to cure myself. Two persons came to me (in
my dream) and sat, one by my head and the other by my feet. One of them
asked the other, "What is the ailment of this man?" The other
replied, 'He has been bewitched" The first asked, 'Who has bewitched
him?' The other replied, 'Lubaid bin Al-A'sam.' The first one asked, 'What
material has he used?' The other replied, 'A comb, the hair gathered on
it, and the outer skin of the pollen of the male date-palm.' The first
asked, 'Where is that?' The other replied, 'It is in the well of Dharwan.'
" So, the Prophet went out towards the well and then returned and
said to me on his return, "Its date-palms (the date-palms near the
well) are like the heads of the devils." I asked, "Did you take
out those things with which the magic was worked?" He said, "No,
for I have been cured by Allah and I am afraid that this action may spread
evil amongst the people." Later on the well was filled up with earth.'"
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 490.)
If Mohammed did, at times, "fancy that he was doing a thing which he was not actually doing," he was, to put it plainly, delusional.
Muslims chide the Christians for worshipping Jesus as God
incarnate. This was not, as they think, a gradual process of
elevation that began after Jesus' departure, because even
during His earthly ministry Jesus claimed to be God. However,
a strange thing began to happen to Mohammed ibn Abdallah, a
man whom everyone acknowledges to have been a mere man, after
his demise. He himself condemned the Christians for worshipping at the site
of Jesus' empty tomb:
"'A'isha reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said during his illness from which he never recovered: Allah cursed the Jews and the Christians that they took the graves of their prophets as mosques. She ('A'isha) reported: Had it not been so, his (Prophet's) grave would have been in an open place, but it could not be due to the fear that it may not be taken as a mosque."
(Hadith, Sahih al Muslim, Book 004, Number 1079, Chapter 47).
You'll never guess what Mohammed's own tomb, which is not empty, is today.
You can find a tradition that says just about anything, there is
such a wealth of this material, including that the Koran alone
suffices: "'By God, you can lay nothing to my charge. I allow only what
the Quran allows and forbid only what the Quran forbids.' (Mohammed is
the speaker, The Life of Muhammad, A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah,
A. Guillaume, p. 682). However, most Muslims do not believe that. As noted, reminiscences by Mohammed's contemporaries are very important
to Islam. The contradictions between this material and the Koran are too
numerous to list. For instance, is intercession futile or possible? The
Koran says futile:
"And fear ye the day when soul shall not satisfy for soul at all, nor shall any intercession be accepted from them,
nor shall any ransom be taken, neither shall they be helped." (Sura 2:45).
"Ask thou forgiveness for them, or ask it not, it will be the same. If thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, God will by no means forgive them. This, for that they believe not in God and His Apostle! And God guideth not the ungodly people."
"And when the trumpet shall be sounded, the ties of kindred
between them shall cease on that day; neither shall they ask each
"They whose balances shall be heavy, shall be the
blest." (Sura 23:103-104).
"For his own good only shall the
guided yield to guidance, and to his own loss only shall the erring
err; and the heavy laden shall not be laden with another's load." (Sura
"The soul burdened with its own works shall not be burdened
with the burden of another: hereafter shall ye return to your
Lord, and he will tell you of all your works, for he knoweth
the very secrets of your breasts." (Sura 39:9).
Muslim biographer Ibn Ishaq implies futility: "The apostle smiled
when I had made a long story and said, 'Get behind me, 'Umar. I have
been given the choice and I have chosen. It was said to me, "Ask pardon
for them or ask it not. If you ask pardon for them seventy times God
will not pardon them." Did I know that if I added to the seventy he
would be forgiven I would add thereto.'" (The Life of Muhammad, A
Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, A. Guillaume, p. 623).
But the hadith give us Mohammed himself as intercessor, another
case in which his post-mortem attributes expand into the realm of the
"Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I shall be pre-eminent amongst the
descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the first intercessor and the first whose intercession will be
accepted (by Allah)." (Hadith, Sahih Muslim, Book 30, Chapter 2, Number 5655).
"On the Day of Resurrection the people will fall on their knees
and every nation will follow their prophet and they will say, 'O
so-and-so! intercede (for us with Allah), 'till (the right)
intercession is given to the Prophet (Mohammed) and tahat will be
the day when Allah will raise him into a station of praise and
glory." (Sahih al Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 242).
"God will assemble the believers on the Day of Judgment. They will
say, 'If only we could find an advocate to plead our cause and relieve
us of this predicament.' [...] Mentioning the sin he committed, he will
advise them to try Christ, God's creature and prophet, His word and His
spirit. Christ will say, 'I'm not the one. Ask Muhammad, the man whom God
forgave all his sins, early and late.' They will then come to me and I
shall go and ask God for permission to enter and will be ushered into His
presence. On seeing Him, I shall fall down in obeisance where He will leave
me as long as He pleases. Then I shall be told to rise. I shall be told,
'Speak and you will be heard; ask, and you will be given; beg permission
to intercede, and it will be granted.'" (see Sahih al Bukhari, Volume
6, Book 60, Number 236, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 3; quoted here
from pp. 95-96, An Introduction to the Hadith, John Burton.)
Could a more perfect and complete contradiction be found? Though the authenticity of the hadith is open to question, these traditions
are an inextricable part of Islam. The problem with this material is
apparent on its face: each hadith begins with a chain of
attestation, reminiscent of the child's game of 'telephone.' 'Suzy'
told Harry who told Sally. . .' Each hand-off of the authenticated
'tradition' invites embellishment or omission. Indeed, the hadith
contradict each other: for each tradition, there is an equal and
opposite tradition,— which in turn contradict the Koran. .
.which is not itself internally consistent! Whether the folkloric
material collected in the Koran is all of the same authorship is
open to question.
Confronted with this blooming and buzzing confusion in the sources, some propose the
theory that Mohammed never existed. But while this theory
admirably explains one problem: 'confusion,'— it withdraws
any possible explanation from other phenomena previously thought
well explained. These occasionally heard denials of Mohammed's
historicity suffer from the same disability as all other conspiracy
theories: they take the long way around, and so William of Ockham's
razor slices them to shreds. Which makes more sense: a.) that the
Arab hordes poured out of Arabia to conquer much of the world, their
enthusiasm fired up by a new 'prophet' who promised secular delights
if they died in the struggle, or b.) that the Arab hordes poured out
of Arabia for no special reason, and conquered much of the world as
an after-thought, thereupon requiring a newly minted mythology
justifying said conquest? The conventional wisdom, the consensus trance, that Mohammed really existed, is of such unparalleled
economy, reach and explanatory power, that if Mohammed had not
existed, we would almost be compelled to invent him! While the
'non-existence' theory is not viable, falling far short in
parsimony and explanatory reach, it is plausible to imagine that, as
the infant community cherished and amassed its treasured oracles
scrawled upon camel scapulas, their quantity may have seemed
somewhat meager and in need of augmentation.
There is a well-warranted concern
today about the prevalence of 'Islamophobia.' Nevertheless this religion's standing in the public
mind would be even lower if more people were familiar with the Hadith,
which give us not Mohammed the poet but Mohammed the executioner and warlord.
Truth to tell, the terrorists' interpretation of Islam is not so
off-the-wall that one can fairly say they have hijacked a peaceful
religion; on the other hand, neither is it so obvious or inescapable
as to justify the plain fact that most Muslims do not share their
view. One must wonder what sanction there is for Mohammed the Intercessor,
given that he himself says, "SAY: I am no apostle of new doctrines:
neither know I what will be done with me or you." (Koran, Sura 49:8).
In spite of his self-admitted helpless ignorance, Mohammed the
intercessor for his people has long been a fixture of popular
Islamic piety; this fond hope is enshrined in the very early slogans
inscribed on the wall of the Jerusalem mosque: "Muhammad is the
Messenger of God. . .The blessing of God be on him. May He accept
his intercession on the Day of Judgment on behalf of his people."
(Quotations from the Dome of the Rock, Did Muhammad Exist? Robert
Spencer, Kindle location 937).
While some modern critics dismiss almost all of the
traditional hadith as forgeries reflecting the political
conditions of a later day, there is a 'Gresham's Law' in
matters of authenticity that militates against doing so. Fakes
which are not believed to be genuine achieve little or
nothing. Once a fake is unmasked as such, people lose
interest; who today even reads Ossian? So those who argue in
this way must square the circle: the hadith are generally
bogus, but most of the people involved in the large-scale
social endeavor to compile and study these traditions, were
not aware of this. Conspiracy theorists tell us that this type
of thing happens all the time. But when they tell us, that
NORAD was ordered to stand down on 9/11, we must wonder, with
all the people who must have been aware of this situation, how
come none of them subsequently stood before the TV cameras and
set the record straight? One might reply, under conditions of
political totalitarianism, where free inquiry and public
discussion are not allowed, such a plot might succeed. In
actual fact, one finds upon inspecting real-life totalitarian
societies, like the former Soviet Union, that the public in such
places is disposed to believe nothing of what the government
says, not all of it. So the proposal that the hadith could
have been faked by the subsequent political leadership, but no
one would have been able to unravel their machinations, is
more problematical than it seems. Its seems more likely to me that, in
the main, the contradictions in this material go back to Mohammed
himself, and his first followers, who in their life-time traversed the
social distance from the lowly status
of a persecuted minority sect in Mecca to the dominant warlord clan
in Medina. This change in circumstance brought about a change
in attitude during the foundation generation.
Of course somebody is
innovating at least some of the time; the 'It's Ali' and 'It's not
Ali' material cannot both be genuine. To be a Muslim, one must develop
a tolerance for contradiction most people do not naturally have. There
is an entire body of 'scholarship' which grew up precisely
to paper over the contradictions in the source material. Muslims will
warn you not to bother to read their sources without
'guidance' from these 'scholars,' and they are right: there is
no way any thinking person can reconcile 'Mohammed intercedes'
with 'Mohammed cannot intercede' without a bevy of 'scholars'
in attendance, to change the subject. The tradition can't seem to make
up its mind on this topic. For instance, we discover that
Mohammed interceded for his pagan uncle Abu Talib, who
protected him, managing to accomplish on his behalf. . .that
he is in such a shallow place of hell-fire that his brains
"That he said to the Prophet, 'You have not been
of any avail to your uncle (Abu Talib) (though) by Allah, he
used to protect you and used to become angry on your behalf.'
The Prophet said, 'He is in a shallow fire, and had it not
been for me, he would have been in the bottom of the (Hell)
Fire." (Sahih al Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 222).
"That he heard the Prophet when somebody mentioned
his uncle (i.e. Abu Talib), saying, 'Perhaps my intercession
will be helpful to him on the Day of Resurrection so that he
may be put in a shallow fire reaching only up to his ankles.
His brain will boil from it." (Sahih al Bukhari, Volume 5,
Book 58, Number 224).
Confusion on this level would see to be symptomatic of a larger
problem. Do Muslims realize they need an intercessor, but having none,
end up imagining this fallible man might be called upon to only make
their brains boil?
Works, Faith, or Mercy
Mohammed denied the Biblical basis of salvation: the substitutionary atonement
of Jesus Christ. What he substituted in its place is a hopeless muddle,
Mohammed variously proclaiming 1.) Salvation by works, including the
terrifying promise that mankind will receive at God's hand just exactly
what we deserve:
"Fear the day wherein ye shall return to God: then shall every soul
be rewarded according to its desert, and none shall have injustice done
to them." (Sura 2:281).
"It is not the Prophet who will defraud you; — But he who shall defraud, shall come forth with his defraudings
on the day of the resurrection: then shall every soul be paid what it hath merited, and they shall not be treated with injustice." (Sura 3:155).
"But how, when we shall assemble them together for the day of (which)
whose coming there is no doubt, and when every soul shall be paid what
it hath earned, and they shall not be wronged?" (Sura 3:24).
"And some say, 'O our Lord! give us good in this world and good in
the next, and keep us from the torment of the fire.' They shall have the
lot which they have merited: and God is swift to reckon." (Sura 2:198).
"Man acquires nothing but what he himself has earned; none of his
deeds is lost and each will count on the Day of Judgment." (Sura 53:40,
quoted p. 560, The Life of Muhammad, Muhammad H. Haykal).
truly thy Lord will repay every one according to their works!
for He is well aware of what they do." (Sura 11:113).
The idea that Islam is a pure religion of salvation-by-works is readily understood and correspondingly popular, for
instance with this outside observer:
"Perhaps the clearest expression of this doctrine,
besides the Letter of James itself, is to be found, as already
remarked, in the Koran, which repeatedly reiterates the
Jamesian 'believe and do good works.' Here, Muhammad, clearly
the heir to some of these underground traditions, over and over again avers the doctrine of Salvation by 'works' and
'works' alone, that is, it is your works stored up in Heaven,
or as he puts it, that 'you send before you' that will 'save'
you on the Judgment Day. No intercession by another is
acceptable nor, for instance, would it then be possible for
someone else 'to die for your sins.' This is a basic tenet of
the Koran and it, quite clearly, emanates from one unequivocal
source." (Robert Eisenman, James the Brother of Jesus, p. 417)
Unequivocal! Except, maybe. . .
2.) Salvation by faith (understood not in its New Testament meaning of
absolute personal trust, but as assent to a proposition, namely the unity of God):
"Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, 'Whoever said..."None has the
right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal
to the weight of an atom will be taken out of Hell." (Sahih Bukhari,
Volume 1, Book 2, Number 42).
"The Prophet asked Mu'adh, 'Do you know what God can claim from men?
That they worship Him and Him alone. Do you know what they can claim from
Him? If they do that, that He will not punish them.'" (Bukhari, quoted
p. 95, An Introduction to the Hadith, John Burton).
"The Prophet said, 'There has just come to me a messenger from God
to inform me to be of good cheer, for whichever of my people died without
associating any partner with God will enter Heaven. I asked him, 'Even if
he commits adultery, or even if he steals?' and he said, 'Even so.'"
(Bukhari, quoted p. 95, An Introduction to the Hadith, John Burton).
"Narrated Abu Dharr: 'I came to the Prophet while he was wearing white
clothes and sleeping. Then I went back to him again after he had got up
from his sleep. He said, "Nobody says: 'None has the right to be worshipped
but Allah' and then later on he dies while believing in that, except that
he will enter Paradise." I said, "Even if he had committed illegal
sexual intercourse and theft?" He said. "Even if he had committed
illegal sexual intercourse and theft."'" (Sahih Bukhari, Volume
7, Book 72, Number 717.)
"When he came, I could not remain patient and asked him, "O Allah's Prophet!
Let Allah get me sacrificed for you! Whom were you speaking to by the side of Al-Harra? I did not
hear anybody responding to your talk." He said, "It was Gabriel who appeared to me beside Al-Harra
and said, 'Give the good news to your followers that whoever dies without having worshipped anything
besides Allah, will enter Paradise.' I said, 'O Gabriel! Even if he had committed theft or committed
illegal sexual intercourse?' He said, 'Yes.'"
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, Number 450.)
3.) God's arbitrary mercy, awarded or withheld according to no
rational nor comprehensible schedule:
". . .and whom He pleaseth will He forgive, and whom He
pleaseth will He punish; for God is All-powerful." (Sura 2:284).
"'Walk righteously, sacrifice and be of good cheer,' he said, 'but
none will enter Heaven on account of his deeds.' 'Not even you?' he was
asked. 'Not even I,' he replied, 'unless God smother me in forgiveness
and mercy.'" (Bukhari, quoted p. 95, An Introduction to the Hadith,
"Verily, God will not forgive the union of other gods with Himself!
But other than this will He forgive to whom He pleaseth." (Sura 4:51).
"If ye avoid the great sins which ye are forbidden, we will
blot out your faults, and we will cause you to enter Paradise
with honorable entry." (Sura 4:35)
"When God created the universe, He wrote in His Book, so binding Himself,
'My mercy will overcome My wrath.' He has kept that Book by Him on the
throne." (Bukhari, quoted p. 95, An Introduction to the Hadith, John Burton.)
or some combination of the three. (There are also, of course, ad hoc salvation plans like 'die in battle and go straight
to heaven.') Mohammed himself pleads for mercy, not the justice he
sometimes preached: "O our Lord!...blot out our sins and forgive us, and have
pity on us." (Sura 2:286);
"O our Lord! forgive us then our sin, and hide away from us our evil
deeds, and cause us to die with the righteous." (Sura 3:191).
Here is one latter-day combo plan, with hell softened to
purgatory for the believer, and intercession, elsewhere denied,
"One should believe that the believer in the
Oneness of Allah (if he encounters Hell on account of his
sins) will be released from Hell fire after he has been
punished, so that there will not remain in Hell one single
"One should believe in the intercession of the
prophets, of the learned, and of the martyrs, then the rest of
the believers — each according to his influence and rank
"Whosoever remains of the believers and has no
intercessor will be released through he Grace of Allah, the
Mighty, the Glorified. Therefore not one single believer will
abide in Hell forever; whosoever has in his heart the weight of
an atom of belief will be brought out from there." (Abu
Hamid al Ghazali, The Foundations of Islamic Belief, pp. 22-23)
Or at any rate, one can always hope.
The Bible does not rule out the theoretical possibility of 1.) salvation
by works, but reports the set of those thus saved to be empty: "For
there is no difference; for all have sinned and fall short of the glory
of God..." (Romans 3:23). The criterion of righteousness is not, as
some Muslims imagine, 51% good somehow mystically cancelling out
the 49% bad: ". . .for the good deeds drive away the evil deeds" (Sura
11:116), but God's holiness:
Even demons make the Muslim profession of faith: "You believe that
there is one God. You do well. Even the demons believe—and tremble!"
(James 2:19). They are not saved! The Koran itself recognizes the
problem of sin: "Should God punish men for their perverse doings, he
would not leave on earth a moving thing! but to an appointed term
doth He respite them; and when their term is come, they shall not
delay or advance it an hour." (Koran Sura 16:62). Not one moving
thing! "If, moreover, God should chastise men according to their
deserts, He would not leave even a reptile on the back of the earth!
But to an appointed time doth He respite them." (Koran Sura 35:44).
All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God.
God is a God of justice, as well as of mercy. How can both these
demands be met? At the cross they meet. It may be objected, a similar list of antitheses can be compiled
from the Bible. But the Bible also includes sustained argumentation,
such as Paul's letters, explaining how the pieces of the puzzle fit
together. That is lacking here.
As is understandable, the result of this confusion is not
assurance, but rather, "According to one condition, 'Whoever says,
"I am a believer," is an infidel; and whoever says, "I am learned,"
is ignorant."' (Abu Hamid al Ghazali, The Foundations of Islamic
Belief, p. 251). Because they seek salvation without a Savior, they cannot rest in any of
these three salvation plans, but run from one to the next. Thus all three
have found proponents down through the years; their quarrel cannot be resolved,
because all were proclaimed by Mohammed.
Back during the Cold War, communists in Western countries were great champions
of civil liberties. They naturally wanted to be free to express their views,
unpopular though those might be. When the communists succeeded in gaining
power, however, their devotion to free speech withered, and was shown to have
been only a tactic, not a principle they lived by. Certainly
they did not allow dissenters to express their views, once they had the
power to orchestrate silence.
After departing Mecca for Medina, Mohammed received a fraudulent vision
promising the community would be able to complete the pilgrimage to the
Kaba, still an idol-filled shrine. The tribe of the Quraysh stood in their
way, although "The ancient sanctuary of Makkah was not a property
of the Quraysh but of all the Arabs together...The fact that one tribe
worshipped one idol rather than another never permitted the Quraysh to
forbid any tribe from visiting the Kabah, from circumambulating it, or
from filling any religious duties or acts of worship demanded by the tribe's
loyalty to that god." (The Life of Muhammad, Muhammad H. Haykal, p.
342). Mohammed therefore stood upon his rights as an Arab and demanded
to make the pilgrimage, even inviting pagan Arab tribes to join him to
underscore the basis of his demand. In the Koran at this time, God purportedly
expresses indignation at the Quraysh for arrogantly blocking entry to the
shrine to those who wanted to worship: "And why should they not be
punished by God when they prevent men from entering the Holy Mosque for
worship?" (Koran 8:34-36, quoted p. 341, The Life of Muhammad, Muhammad H. Haykal).
Times change, civil disorder convulsed Arabia, and Mohammed ended up on
top, holding the keys to the Kabah. Forgotten now was any claim that all
Arabs have a right to visit. Only Muslims are welcome, thank you very much:
"This is a complete absolution from God and His Prophet regarding
all obligation arising from pacts made with the associationists [idolaters]...The
associationists are anathema. After this year they shall not approach the
holy Mosque." (Koran 9:1-36, quoted pp. 465-466, The Life of Muhammad,
Muhammad H. Haykal). "After he [Ali] finished his recitation of the
Qur'an, he continued in his own words: 'O Men, no unbeliever will enter
Paradise; no associationist will perform pilgrimage after this year; and
no naked man will be allowed to circumambulate the Holy House.'" (The
Life of Muhammad, Muhammad H. Haykal, p. 466).
It is noteworthy that all the tolerant language in the Koran is heard before
the community acquires the military strength to silence its detractors.
After that, there is no further talk of tolerance.